First, the book focuses on the limitations of the currently dominant industrialized, but unsustainable food system. The relationship between cities and food is discussed from a historic stand-point, focused on Europe and the Mediterranean region. Policies implemented by cities, the governance aims, means and models are analysed, as well as the sustainability of food systems and urban food policies. The SurFood programme on building urban food policies is presented. Last chapter investigates the urban food governance emergence process in Montpellier, from when food is included in the local public policies drawing agenda, to the mobilization of civil society actors. It concludes with potential research avenues towards more sustainability.